Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide problem. It is considered a syndrome because it involves a number of metabolic events happening at the molecular level resulting in the involvement of multiple organs and a vast variety of signs and symptoms.
Due to the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus, researchers have come to the conclusion that more awareness about diabetes can only be the way of reducing and treating the disease. The main purpose now is to delay or avoid the complications of diabetes as much as possible.
Complications of diabetes mellitus
Following most common types of complications of diabetes mellitus
Cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis is the most common and most deteriorating among other serious complications of diabetes mellitus.
Narrowing of blood vessels due to lipid accumulation in micro and macro vessels result in complications.
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the consequences of Vasculopathy itself.
Diabetic nephropathy is a really debilitating and miserable complication and leads to chronic renal failure rendering a diabetic patient to multiple dialyzes or a transplant which is costly and torturing.
Diabetic foot leading to gangrenous foot and then amputation of all or parts of limbs is yet another misery due to chronic uncontrolled diabetes. It starts with numbness, tingling sensations progressing to loss of sensation and then an injury causes invasion of bacteria which becomes hard to control in case of uncontrolled diabetes. This leads to gangrene and is an indication for amputation.
Types of Diabetes mellitus
There are two main types of diabetes mellitus. Type I and type II diabetes mellitus have different etiology.
Type I Diabetes Mellitus
Beta cells present in the pancreas secrete insulin which is responsible for glucose regulation. These beta cells fail to produce in sufficient number and so does the insulin. This results in raised blood glucose levels and then a series of events occur causing its complications if one doesn’t improve his blood sugar levels.
Type II diabetes Mellitus
Insulin resistance on cellular level causes no glucose regulation despite of sufficient quantity of insulin present.
HYPOGLYCEMIA-The most serious effect of diabetic patients
A diabetic patient, especially on ant diabetic therapy, may undergo hypoglycemia which is even more serious emergency.
Diabetes information card in a diabetic’s wallet
Diabetic patients may faint in public, not responding to any stimulus. People around them may not get a clue about what is happening to the person. Actually, sudden low blood glucose levels show such signs in a diabetic patient on anti-diabetic therapy.
- It is advised that such people carry a card within their pockets where they are labeled as “Diabetic”.
- The card has some instructions on what to do in case of fainting of the cardholder and when to call 911 for help.
- It tells that whenever you see a person in public going unconscious and he is not responding anyways, he probably has undergone hypoglycemia and needs an urgent source of glucose like juice.
- If a person doesn’t respond, must call for help.