Miscarriage or Abortion is a clinical condition which is defined as the loss of pregnancy before the age of viability. Age of viability is the minimum gestational age at which a fetus can survive in the world, if given birth by any chance. Age of viability according to recent data analysis is now 20 weeks of gestation. So, we can say that miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy before 20th week of gestation. After the 20th week, term intrauterine fetal death can be used but miscarriage is not applicable.
Types of miscarriages
There are many types of miscarriages which depend upon the process how miscarriage happened. It is important to know the types of miscarriages because this knowledge applies both in medical management and
- A Spontaneous miscarriage is the one which happens without the intervention by humans in any form.
Missedmiscarriage is a type of spontaneous miscarriage in which the baby is dead, and no fetal heart beatcan be appreciated. Blightedovum is a type of missed miscarriage in which fetus is not developed inside the gestational sac in the first place. Inevitablemiscarriage is the one in which the vaginal bleeding is so great that miscarriage is imminent and cannot be prevented. Threatenedmiscarriage is the one in which patientis bleeding but the fetus is still alive. There is a threat to the life of fetus.
- Induced miscarriage is the one in which fetus is alive, but miscarriage is induced through medicines to get rid of the pregnancy. Induced miscarriage has many scenarios and except certain medical conditions, it is considered as
criminaland punishable act in most of the countries.
Miscarriage certificate-Why is it important?
Whenever a pregnant woman has to undergo the painful process of miscarriage, it is always advised that she gets a miscarriage certificate from the hospital. This miscarriage certificate or miscarriage letter is required on a number of levels ranging from legal to personal and medical reasons.
- In legal matters, it is important to maintain the cause of miscarriage because induced miscarriage is a crime and has to be punished if proved. Moreover, in the matters of paternity and property division, it is quite possible that the fetus was killed through induced miscarriage and the letter helps in knowing whether a healthy fetus was killed, or it was actually a natural or spontaneous miscarriage.
- Sometimes, miscarriage is induced clinically because the fetus is not normal. He might have anomalies which are disabling for the baby and family. In such special conditions, miscarriage is legal to induce, and a letter produced by the hospital saves the mother, family and the hospital from a lot of fuss.
- Spontaneous forms of miscarriage also require a letter because they are also used for the same purpose and also for future reference and history taking.
Who issues a miscarriage letter/certificate?
The gynecologist who performed the procedure of induction or received and managed the patient throughout the process has to produce the miscarriage certificate with all the necessary details.
What details are important in the miscarriage letter?
Miscarriage letter, as mentioned earlier must contain information about the patient including his gravidity and parity with brief obstetric history. The presenting complaints which were favoring the diagnosis of miscarriage can also be added. Most important is the outcome of miscarriage, gestational age, sex of the baby, if identified, and expelled as