Miscarriage or Abortion is a clinical condition that is defined as the loss of pregnancy before the age of viability. Age of viability is the minimum gestational age at which a fetus can survive in the world if given birth by any chance. The age of viability according to recent data analysis is now 20 weeks of gestation. So, we can say that miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy before the 20th week of gestation. After the 20th week, the term intrauterine fetal death can be used but miscarriage is not applicable.
Types of miscarriages
There are many types of miscarriages that depend upon the process of how the miscarriage happened. It is important to know the types of miscarriages because this knowledge applies both in medical management and medico-legal scenarios.
- A Spontaneous miscarriage is one which happens without the intervention of humans in any form.
Missedmiscarriage is a type of spontaneous miscarriage in which the baby is dead, and no fetal heartbeatcan be appreciated.
- A blighted ovum is a type of missed miscarriage in which the fetus is not developed inside the gestational sac in the first place.
- An inevitable miscarriage is one in which vaginal bleeding is so great that miscarriage is imminent and cannot be prevented.
- A threatened miscarriage is one in which the patient is bleeding but the fetus is still alive. There is a threat to the life of the
- Induced miscarriage is one in which the fetus is alive, but miscarriage is induced through medicines to get rid of the pregnancy. Induced miscarriage has many scenarios and except for certain medical conditions, it is considered a
criminaland punishable act in most of the countries.
Miscarriage certificate-Why is it important?
Whenever a pregnant woman has to undergo the painful process of miscarriage, it is always advised that she gets a miscarriage certificate from the hospital. This miscarriage certificate or miscarriage letter is required on a number of levels ranging from legal to personal and medical reasons.
- In legal matters, it is important to maintain the cause of miscarriage because induced miscarriage is a crime and has to be punished if proven. Moreover, in the matters of paternity and property division, it is quite possible that the fetus was killed through induced miscarriage and the letter helps in knowing whether a healthy fetus was killed, or it was actually a natural or spontaneous miscarriage.
- Sometimes, miscarriage is induced clinically because the fetus is not normal. He might have anomalies that are disabling for the baby and family. In such special conditions, miscarriage is legal to induce, and a letter produced by the hospital saves the mother, family, and the hospital from a lot of fuss.
- Spontaneous forms of miscarriage also require a letter because they are also used for the same purpose and also for future reference and history taking.
Who issues a miscarriage letter/certificate?
The gynecologist who performed the procedure of induction or received and managed the patient throughout the process has to produce the miscarriage certificate with all the necessary details.
What details are important in the miscarriage letter?
Miscarriage letter, as mentioned earlier must contain information about the patient including his gravidity and parity with brief obstetric history. The presenting complaints which were favoring the diagnosis of miscarriage can also be added. Most important is the outcome of miscarriage, gestational age, sex of the baby, if identified, and expelled as a